Solidity and Rust are mainly used to build web3 applications on Solana and Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) compatible blockchains. This is because Ethereum and Solana are two of the most popular public smart contract-based blockchains.
In this article, we will be comparing these two web3 programming languages to help you understand the pros and cons of each one. So, let’s get into it!
What is Solidity?
Solidity is a programming language that is object-oriented, high-level, and statically typed. It is used to implement smart contracts on the Ethereum Virtual Machine. The EVM is a runtime environment, so it works like a virtual computer.
To clarify, object-oriented means that the programming language is centered around data and objects as opposed to logic and functions.
High-level, on the other hand, means the programming language is easier to implement than lower-level languages easier to use because it is independent of the computer hardware architecture.
Finally, statically typed means that the programming language performs type checking and error checking during compile time.
Blockchains Compatible with Solidity
Ethereum is not the only blockchain that is compatible with Solidity.
Other examples include:
- Arbitrum – a layer 2 functionality that looks to solve the congestion on the Ethereum network. Arbitrum uses the Ethereum mainnet for security but allows the contracts to run on a separate layer.
- Polkadot – a blockchain platform that allows specialized blockchains called parachains to communicate and transact with each other.
- Optimism – a layer 2 protocol built to allow users of the Ethereum network to speed up and pay lower transaction fees.
- Avalanche – an open-source, decentralized, proof-of-stake blockchain. Avalanche smart contract functionality.
- Celestial – is a minimal blockchain that decouples the consensus and application execution layers. Celestial does not execute transactions; it only orders and publishes them.
- Polygon – is a layer 2 blockchain platform that runs alongside Ethereum to increase transaction speeds and decrease costs.
What is Rust?
Rust is a multi-paradigm, general-purpose programming language that emphasizes type safety and performance. Rust is also low-level programming, that allows you to build fast applications where trustworthiness is key.
Low-level means that instructions from the programming language have direct control of the computer’s hardware. On the hand, multiparadigm refers to a programming language that uses different types of paradigms like procedural, object-oriented, etc.
Blockchains Compatible with Rust
- Solana – a blockchain that is open-source and programmable that allows the creation of smart contracts called Programs. Programs can be developed in C, C++, and Rust.
It is one of the fastest blockchains out there, with a block time of 400 milliseconds and now close to 65,000 transactions per second.
- Near – a layer 1 proof-of-stake high-performance blockchain that uses sharding to be able to scale infinitely the number of transactions per second. It is also very fast.
- Aptos – Initially built as a scalable layer 1 blockchain by the team at Diem, Meta’s (formerly known as Facebook) blockchain initiative, it uses Move, a programming language based on rust, to deploy smart contracts.
- Sui – A permissionless decentralized platform that uses Move to write smart contracts. It is geared toward managing assets in a low-latency manner.